Oleksandr Lytvynenko: The key factor of successful countering of Russian aggression is an effective and responsible strategic leadership aimed at progressive social development
The key factor of successful countering of Russian aggression is an effective and responsible strategic leadership aimed at progressive social development. This was stated by Deputy Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine Oleksandr Lytvynenko in his speech at the International Conference "The Hybrid War Decade: Lessons Learned to Move Forward Successfully" on Wednesday in Kyiv.
The Deputy Secretary of the NSDC of Ukraine provided insight on the main means of hybrid war waged by the Russian Federation against our country. According to Mr. Lytvynenko, the key target of attacks in the Russian hybrid war is not the territory, but the minds and hearts of people.
According to him, the Russian doctrine of hybrid war is based on Russian strategic culture, the cornerstones of which are "disposition toward hyper-realism, the widespread use of strategic deception, and the use of client state entities and societies". "Cyberwar means play an important role in the Kremlin's doctrine", - Mr. Lytvynenko said.
"The peculiarity of Russian hybrid aggression is its systematicity and coordination of operations from one center. At the same time, it is not about rigid management, but about the use of network type coordination based on common values, ideas and approaches inherent to all actors. Such an approach became possible thanks to modern information technologies, in particular, the Internet and social networks", - Oleksandr Lytvynenko noted.
Analyzing the foundations of Russian policy, Deputy Secretary of the NSDC of Ukraine pointed out that "the Russians consider themselves unfairly offended by the West, primarily by the United States, and seek revenge for defeat in the Cold War". "In fact, the Kremlin considers the world without Russia as a very likely scenario", - he added.
"Russia today acts as a specific "reactionary revolutionary" who undermines the world order at the same time gambling on the principle of legitimacy. That is why the Kremlin's allies are anti-system forces, mostly ultra-right or ultra-left, - Mr. Lytvynenko stressed. - It is also about using ethnic and religious minorities and outright speculation on collective rights, especially of so-called "compatriots" abroad". "A divided "Russian nation rising up from its knees" is a constant refrain of Russian propaganda", - he added.
The Deputy Secretary of the NSDC of Ukraine also emphasized that the Kremlin interferes in election campaigns in order to undermine democracy in Europe and the world, resorts to utter manipulations, information, psychological, and cognitive wars. "Particular attention should be paid to the traditional ties of the Kremlin with international criminality and the use of its methods in general", - Mr. Lytvynenko noticed.
The Deputy Secretary of the NSDC of Ukraine noted that hybrid means are aimed at weakening the will and ability of a victim-society to resistance, which contributes to the success of the next stage - a military campaign". "If hybrid methods do not achieve the desired results, then escalation may occur in a form of a direct, limited or even large-scale military invasion. Examples of Donbas and Syria are illustrative", - he emphasized.
"What can be set against hybrid means? First of all, the resistance of the society, its will to fight for freedom and independence, readiness for pushback, trust within society and society's trust in government institutions, an effective security and defense sector", - Oleksandr Lytvynenko said.
"The healthy civil society and responsible media play a vital role", - he stated. - I am convinced that the key factor of successful countering of the aggression is an effective and responsible strategic leadership aimed at progressive social development.Answering the moderator's questions regarding the ban on some Russian Internet resources, Mr. Lytvynenko compared them with drugs due to the speed of influence and harm. "If we were involved in the debate on the social networks ban, we would have been still debating, and the same applies to Russian artists. It is better to do and speak than to not do and regret", - the Deputy Secretary of the NSDC of Ukraine pointed out.